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generation of computer 1st to 5th

Sneha Singh 0

Generation of computer

The digital computer that you have in the world today, all the credit for making this world goes to a great Computer Scientist. Whose name is Charles Babbage Who was Professor of Mathematics. This world was started in the 19th century, though you may know that Charles Babbage is also called Father of Computer, which is Father of Computer.

Now let’s go back a few years back and draw some knowledge about the different generation of computer. Knowing who you will be surprised after.

By the way, there are 5 Generation of Computer. Generation means, “How different technologies have been used in computer over the years and what hardware was used. Talking about technology, hardware and software are talking about here. Due to which the computer has changed in different generations. This is the definition of Generation of Computer.

First Generation Of Computer

The first generation period is from 1946 to 1959. In 1937, Dr. John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry created Mill’s first electronic digital computer. The name was Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC). Vacuum Tubes was used in all computers of this generation. If you talk about VACUUM TUBES then there were these basic components of memory and CPU at that time. These components used to be heated very quickly. For this reason the computers would have been hot In 1943, an electronic computer was created for MILITARY, whose name was Colossus.

ist generation of computer

After a long time, in 1946 the first General Purpose digital computer was created, which is named. “Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)”.

One shocking thing was that at that time ENIAC was WEIGHT 3000 KG (30 TON). Now think that the computer which you hold on one hand today was kept in two to three rooms. About 18,000 vacuum tubes were used in this ENIAC computer. Because it was quite expensive, only the selected organisation used to be able to use it.

The computers of 1ST Generation were doing only one task at a time, which is also called single task single user. In these, the BATCH PROCESSING OPERATING SYSTEM was used. Punch cards, paper tape, and magnetic tape were used as input and output devices.

The main features of the first generation are :-

* Vacuum tube technology was used.

* Unbelievably, the output always used to come wrong.

* It only supported machine language.

* This computer was very expensive.

* Was hot very quickly.

* Processing was very slow and slow.

* Its size was quite large.

* AC was used to keep this machine cool.

* It was not portable to change from one place to another.

* Much electricity was used.

Some computer names of this generation :-




4. IBM-701

5. IBM-650

Second Generation Of Computer

The second generation period is 1959–1965. In this generation the transistor was used in lieu of vacuum tubes. The transistor was quite cheap, small in size and power consumption was low. They were reliable and faster than first generation computers. In this era, magnetic cores were used as primary memory. Magnetic tape and magnetic disk were used for secondary memory.

In 1951 Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC 1) was the first computer of this generation and was introduced to the public. Soon after, International Business Machine (IBM) made “IBM 650” computers which became very popular.

Programming language was also invented during this period. In this generation, more than 100 languages ​​emerged. Some of which used assembly language and high-level programming language such as FORTRAN, COBOL. Like the first generation, the Batch Processing Operating System and multi programming OS were used in this generation as well. The printer was first used in the history of computers.

second generation of computer

The main features of the second generation are :-

* Transistor was used.

* were more accurate than the first generation computer.

* Their size was smaller than the first generation.

* According to first generation computers, their temperature was low.

* Talking about electricity, it was least used if first generation computers are not compared.

* Processing used to be very fast. They used to be very expensive even in this era.

* AC was still needed, due to overheating.

* Low level languages ​​such as machine and assembly languages ​​were used.

Some computer names of this generation :-

1. IBM 1620

2. IBM 7094

3. CDC 1604

4. CDC 3600

5. UNIVAC 1108

Third Generation Of Computer

The third generation period is from 1965 to 1971. The primary reason for the third generation is IC i.e. Integrated Circuit. In this generation IC was used in lieu of Transistor. Due to this, the size of the computer had become even smaller at the time of this computer history.

An IC consists of many transistors, registers and capacitors. Very large scale Integration (VLSI) technology was used. Because of these, computers became smaller, reliable and faster. IC was invented by Jack Kilby. The third generation used remote processing, time-sharing, multi programming operating systems. If we talk about languages, then these languages ​​were used – FORTRAN-II, III, IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL, BASIC, ALGOL-68. Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-Dos) was born in 1961 and in 1981 IBM started making personal computer (PC) especially for home and office.

third generation of computer

The main features of the third generation are :-

* A special Integrated Circuit was used.

* Were more accurate and reliable.

* Both were small in size from the first generation.

* This generation of computers used to generate low temperatures Used to be faster.

* Less maintenance was required.

* Generation computers were expensive.

* AC was also needed in this generation to prevent overheating.

* Consumption of electricity was less. High level language was used.

Some computer names of this generation :-

1. IBM-360 series

2. Honeywell-6000 series

3. PDP (Personal Data Processor)

4. IBM-370/168

5. TDC-316

Fourth Generation Of Computer

The period of the fourth generation is 1971–1980. Very large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits were used in this fourth generation. VLSI is a type of technology that was used. VLSI Circuits have about 5000 transistors. The era of Microcomputer started for the first time in this generation due to having multiple components on one IC chip.

All the features of the third generation were also used in this generation of computers. Reliable, faster, in size, the entire desktop used to be. This was a period where everyone started buying personal computer (PC). PCs were coming in every household, along with this, PCs were also being used in college, office, government, banking and commerce.

Time sharing, real time networks, distributed operating system was used in FOURTH Generation and is still happening. Speaking of languages, programming languages ​​like C, C ++, DBASE were used to make software.

4th generation of computer

The main features of the fourth generation are :-

* VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) technology was used.

* Computers of this generation were cheap.

* Due to being portable and reliable, they used to be more in DEMAND market.

* It was the era of personal computer.

* Their sizes were smaller than the first, second, third generation computers.

* First use pipelining.

* No AC is required.

* For the first time internet was used in computer.

* There was a rapid change in the networks.

* Anyone could easily buy these computers from anywhere, like nowadays.

Some computer names of this generation :-

1. DEC 10

2. STAR 1000

3. PDP 11

4. CRAY-1 (Super Computer)

5. CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer)

Fifth Generation Of Computer

Right now the Fifth generation is going on. The duration of which is from 1980 to date. This is the most golden time in the history of computer. Where AI means Artificial intelligence is going to change the world completely. Now VLSI TECHNOLOGY has transformed into ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology. Due to this technology, more than 1 crore transistors are present in a MICRO PROCESSOR today. A CPU has been converted into a small chip.

Parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) technology is the rule in this generation. Once noticed, AI will be everywhere today. Like in Mobile, Google Assistant, Image Recognition, Voice searching, Machine Learning, Spell check, Expert System Medical, Google Map.

Due to this AI technology, a computer is much faster than a human being today. AI means putting Human’s brain into the computer. All high-level languages ​​fall in this fifth generation.

5th generation of computer

The main features of the fifth generation are :-

* The artificial intelligence is being strengthened further.

* All the work is being done on the concept of natural language processing.

* Parallel Processing i.e. Multi Processor is also being done.

* Superconductor technology is being further upgraded.

* Multimedia features are being given more and more importance along with user-friendly interfaces. Because of voice search, image recognition, deep learning, machine learning, it is different from the history of fifth generation computer.

Some computer names of fifth generation :-

1. Desktop

2. Laptop

3. Note Book

4. Ultra Book


Please tell me how I liked this article and if I have made any mistake, then if you have any advice or if you have some questions, then please tell in the comment box below. Your one reply means to me. Anyway, computer science is easy, take care of yourself, always be happy, keep working, the floor is not far away.

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