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Sneha Singh 1

What is computer

The word computer is composed of the word ” compute” which means ” calculation”, which is why it is also called calculator or computer, it was invented for calculation, in the old time computer used only to calculate Was used for But nowadays it is being used in making documents, e-mail, listening and viewing audio and video, play games, database preparation and many more things, such as in banks, in academic institutions, in offices, in homes, In the shops, computers are being used extensively, computers only work what we are asking them to do, that is, only they follow those commands which are already inserted inside the computer, think within it Understandable The person who runs the computer is called a user, and the person who creates a program for Computer is called Programmer.

computer, what is computer, types of computer.

Computer basically consists of two parts


That is the part of the software computer that we can only see and work on it, the software is built on the computer to make it easier to work, nowadays software is built according to the work, as Work Software. Software is designed by software programmers keeping in mind the needs of the users in big companies, some of which are available in free and charge for some. For example, if you have to work related to the photo, then use the media player for Photoshop or any video to see it.


The hardware computer is part of the machine such as LCD, keyboard, mouse, CPU, UPS, etc. which can be seen by touching. The machine part is composed by the outside of the computer part and computer is determined by the ability of computer to be computer hardware. Nowadays, certain hardware is required to run certain software in the computer. If the computer does not have a hardware in accordance with the software then software can not be played in the computer.

” Suppose you have to listen to a song, then you will play a song from any computer’s multimedia software but you will need a speaker to listen without a speaker, you can not listen to the song Your computer must have a multimedia application to listen to any song If your computer is not a multimedia application then you can not play any song from the computer. If it is seen then the software is the soul of the computer and the hardware is its body both of them Absolutely necessary to do any work. “

The following important parts of the computer

  • Monitor or LCD
  • Key Board
  • Mouse
  • CPU
  • UPS

History of computer

Today you run the Internet on the computer, play the game, watch the video, listen to the songs, and also work on a lot of office related work. Today the computer is being used in every area of ​​ the world whether it is education, film Live or have your office. Any place is incomplete without the computer. Today you can get any information from any city in the world on the internet with the help of computer. It can do live video conferencing through internet from your friends and relatives sitting in another country. It’s all possible because of the computer. If you do not have a computer then think about how the world looks today.

Where did the computer start from and why ?

Calculating for humans has been difficult since the beginning. Man can calculate  only at a limited level without any machine. To make bigger calculations, man has to depend on the machine itself. To meet this need, man Created the computer, i.e. to calculate.

Abacus – 3000 years ago

Abacus was built by the scientists of China almost 3000 years ago. In a rectangular frame, wooden rods used to be wooden pellets, which were calculated by calculation below. That is, it was the first computer to run without power. Actually, it was up to your hands to do this work.

Antikythera mechanism – 2000 years ago

 Antikythera was originally an astronomical calculator used to track solar and lunar eclipses in ancient Greece, Antikythera tag is about 2000 years old, the vigilance to the scientists, in 1901, with the completely destroyed ship on Antikythera Island It was found in the dilapidated condition, hence the name of the name was Antikythera system since then the scientists were engaged in decoding it and for long studies This computer has now been decoded after. this machine works with the planets to show the position of the sun and moon in the sky. The Antichythera system acquired the credit for being the first known analogue computer of the modern era, Greek Antikythera System was developed to make astronomical and mathematical figures accurate.

Pascaline – 1642

Pascaline built after Abacus It was calculated by mathematical expert Blaze Pascal in 1642, calculated at a higher speed than Abacus. This was the first mechanical calculator. This machine was called an adding machine, this adding machine of Blase Pascal is also called Pascaline.

Difference Engine – 1822

The difference engine was a machine made by Sir Charles Babbage that could accurately calculate, it was invented in 1822, in which the punch card for program storage was used. It used to steam, on the basis of which today’s computers are being created, therefore Charles Babbage is called the father of computer.

Zuse Z – 3 – 1941

The great scientist “Konrad Zuse” invented a phenomenon called “Zuse-Z3” salt which was the first electronic computer based on the Binary Arithmetic and Floating Point Arithmetic.

Eniac – 1946

A U.S . Military Research Room created the “ENIAC” machine, which means (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). “ENIAC” used to work on the decimal arithmetic system, later “ENIAC” first became known as a computer which later developed into a modern computer.

Manchester Small Scale Machine – 1948

The first was a computer that could keep any of the programs vacuum tube safe, its nick was named Baby, it was made by Frederick Williams and Tom Kilburn.

Computer specialty

Computer has become an integral part of human life due to its characteristics, every person uses the computer according to their own, computer has many specialties,  let’s know the specialty of the computer.

The first feature of the computer is Speed ​​-

While one takes you to do a small calculation, the computer is able to do it in less time than the Calculation Segment, this speed is provided by the processor, the speed of the computer is measured in Hertz, The intensity of is measured in per second, per milliseconds, per nanoseconds etc.

Second characteristic accuracy of computer Accuracy

Working without error, that is to accomplish any part of the work with complete accuracy, the computer has another feature, never made a mistake by the computer, the computer always gives the right result, because the computer is created by the programs we create By following the specified instructions, only after performing a task, the result given by the computer is being misinterpreted, in its program There can be no mistakes are made by human.

The third feature of the computer is Automation –

After giving a computer instructions, until the task is completed, it keeps working in a non-automatic form, for example, when the computer commands the printer to print 100 pages, then print the entire 100 pages. Afterwards, the computer gets instructions for doing all these tasks, they fulfill them on the basis of them. This instruction is given to the computer by program / software. There is another program / software to do every job.

Computer’s fourth feature permanent storage capacity –

The memory used in the computer is used for permanent storage of data, information and instructions. Since the information in the computer is stored electronically, the possibility of ending the information is less.

The fifth feature of the computer is the Large Storage Capacity –

Unlimited data and information can be stored in the external and internal storage media (hard disk, floppy disk, magnetic tape, CD RAM) of the computer. Information about low-level information can be collected in the computer. Hence its storage capacity is huge and unlimited.

Fast retrieval of computer’s hidden specialty stored information –

Required information can be obtained from the information stored in a few seconds by computer usage. Using Ram-Random Access Memory, the work has become even simpler.

The seventh feature of computer is the ability to quickly decide –

Analyzing computer situations with the ability of fast decision based on the instructions given earlier.

Eighth specialty diversity of computers (versatility) –

Different types of work can be done with the help of computer. Modern computers have the ability to work together different types of tasks.

Ninth specialty of computer repetition

By giving a computer order, the same type of work can be repeatedly done with reliability and intensity.

Tenth Feature Computer of Agility –

Due to the computer being a machine, it is devoid of human flaws. It does not feel tired and boredom and works with equal power every time.

Uniformity of work of computer’s eleventh feature work

Regardless of the frequent and continuous work, there is no effect on the quality of the work of the computer.

Computer boundaries

Computer characteristics, you know, the computer does a lot of your work, but there are some limitations on the computer that can not work outside the computer, let’s know what the limitations of the computer are.

Lack of intelligence

Computer is a machine. It does not have intelligence like humans, it only follows the instructions given by the user, in any case the computer works less than the instructions given.

Lack of Common Scene

It is important to know that the computer never makes any mistake, but if the user takes the wrong thing, then it does not have its general sense i.e the Common Scene. If you have not told the computer “Sita is a girl” then it is by her. Default will be considered as a boy, it does not make a difference in name, Computer is not a wise machine, it does not recognize right or wrong.

Dependence on electricity

The computer needs electricity to work, without electricity, the computer is more than a metal box and nothing else. Upgrade and Update – Computer is a machine that has to upgrade and update from time to time. If it does not, the computer can not work properly.

Virus threat

The computer is always at risk for viruses, once the virus comes, this computer can damage the files in the operating system as well.

Computer structure

Computer is divided according to the work according to the generation and according to the size, but since the beginning, there has not been any change in the computer architecture, so let’s know the structure of the computer.

Input unit

Input unit computers are those parts of the computer, through which a data can be entered into the computer, using input keyboard, mouse etc. for input, as well as the computer can get the command through the software Or give instructions it is called i / o devices.

Central processing unit

The central processing unit processes the input data, for this, the Central Processing Unit and the Semantic Metric Logic unit together make arithmetic calculation and logical calculations and process the data, the CPU is called the computer’s brain.


That part of the memory computer stores data and process data entered by the user, it is the primary and second type of type, for example RAM and hard disk.

Output unit

The information processed on the basis of the given command given to you is given to you by the computer, which is received by the output device or the output unit. The best example of the out device is your computer monitor, it is called i / o devices.

Computer memory

Computer Memory According to the composition of the computer, that part of the computer stores data and process data input by the user, the basic component of memory computer is let’s know what is computer memory.

By the way, the CPU is called the brain of the computer, but where the human brain acts as a lot of work to keep our memories safe, the CPU can only calculate the arithmetic calculation and logical calculation Input processes the data, The process can not be secured by the data, now the process data has to be stored somewhere, then this task is with computer memory, computer memory has been divided into many smaller parts, which we Cell is called Each cell has a unique address or path. Whenever you save a file in a computer or saved it in a cell .

There are two types of computer memory


It is also known as Primary Memory, it is also called main memory, it is directly connected to the CPU and its data and instructions are used by the CPU intense and direct, It is called variable – volumetric memory because it can not store memory data permanently, for example – RAM.


This is known as Secondary Memory. Its use is used to store the data in a greater amount, so Secondary memory is described as storage. Is not Memory Example – Hard Disk.

Depending on the space, there are four types of computer memory

  • Register Memory
  • Cache Memory
  •  Primary Memory
  •  Secondary Memory

Computer Memory Unit  

The way in which to measure time, the second is decibels for measuring the voice, measuring the distance, measuring the meter and measuring the weight, there are gems like grams , similarly the quantities were determined to measure storage capacity in the computer world. It is called the unit of computer memory –

The smallest unit of computer memory is a bit (bit) bit binary sign i.e. 0 and 1 only has a pair value (binary value) and when the four bit is merged then it is called nibble ), That is, a group of 1 nibbling = 4- by byte (byte) 8-bit is called byte.

Generally, when you type a digit or letter in your computer, it is expressed by a byte, or simply put it in words, it occupies a space equal to one byte. That is, 1 byte = 8 bit = 2 nibbling, thus about 11099511627776, the group of bets are called terabytes and in a terabyte, approximately 20 million MP3 can be stored.

  • 1 bit (0) = 0, 1
  • 4 bit (bit) = 1 nibble
  • 8 bit = 1 bytes (Byte)
  • 1000 bytes (byte) = one kilobyte (kb)
  • 1024 Kilobytes (KB) = One Megabyte (MB)
  • 1024 megabytes (MB) = one gigabyte (GB)
  • 1024 gigabyte (GB) = one terabyte (TB)
  • 1024 Terabytes (TB) = A Pentite (PB)
  • 1024 Peddabite (PB) = One Exabyte (EB)
  • 1024 Exabytes (EB) = One ZetaBite (ZB)
  • 1024 Zetabite (ZB) = One ZetaBite (YB)

Computer applications

Computer is a very powerful machine. Today computer is being applied in every area, in the exam also questions about the application of computer are asked, then let’s know the application of computer –

Data Processing –

Computers are used to create large data processing and large scale data processing, by collecting data from them, analyzing them, and getting information is very easy.


The picture of modern education has changed in computer, today, through internet, we can get information about any subject in a few moments, schools and colleges have also been connected to the Internet and in many places the emphasis on smart class Being given is possible only because of the computer.

Bank –

In the banking sector, the use of computers has brought revolution, in the place of old age books and registers, the computer has taken most of the functions of the banks are being done through computers such as withdrawing and depositing money, even For calculating the rupees, the machines available in the computer are also available.


Today, 4G is using child-to-the- internet today. Computer technology has made the use of the Internet in the field of communication, and the Internet has created communication revolution.


The use of multimedia has made the computer multiplexed; computers are often used to play movies, television, video games.


Every one institution has its own internal administration and administration is done only from the computer, as well as the benefits of government schemes are reaching the people of the people in the form of e-governance today.

Security –

Today our security system without computer will be weakened. In aircraft tracking, air attack, CCTV camera uses the computer.

Commerce –

 The maximum use of computers is in the shop, bank, insurance, credit company, etc. Working without a computer has become impossible for the world.

Industry –

Many industrial institutions Such as steel, chemical, oil company etc. depend on computer. The plants also use computers for actual control of the processes.

Medicine –

The application of computer in the field of medicine is used to detect various physical ailments, diagnosis and diagnosis of diseases is also possible by computer, in the modern era, x-ray, city scan, ultrasound etc. should be widely used in different areas of the computer.

Computer classification based on work method

On the basis of methodology, the computer has been classified in three types: 1 – Analog Computer, 2 – Digital Computer, 3 – Hybrid Computer. These three have their own characteristics, let’s know. What is digital, analog and hybrid computers, Computer classification based on work method.

Analog computer

In this category, computers come in which the physical units are used to measure pressure, temperature, length, speed, etc. Let’s go a little further, talk about meteorology, the pressure of air, humidity or rain in the atmosphere Or what was the lowest or highest temperature today ? Analog Computer has been created to collect data for all these rain gauges – this shows the amount of rainfall recorded in a particular place, 2 hygrometer (hygrometer) – it is measured by the humidity contained in the atmosphere. , Animometer – This measures the power and speed of the air, that is, all of these Analog Computer collects physical data.

Digital computer

Digital Computer is the computer that you usually use in your homes, in offices, in which the data is fed in a digital way and the output is obtained, more and more digital computers are used and the markets Typically available, digital computer data and programs are converted into 0 and 1 to take it into electronic form.

Hybrid computer

In Hybrid Computer, both Analog Computer and Digital Computer have the same properties. These computers are considered more dependable than analog and digital. Their work is done to make data available from Analog Computer in digital form, they are most commonly used in medical and meteorology.

Types of computers based on size

Since the invention of the computer has changed in its size and functional capacity, the computer is divided into four categories on the basis of Super Computer, Mainframe Computer, Mini Computer and Micro Computer, depending on size. Classification of computer based on Size .

Micro Computer

Micro computers are computers that can be conveniently placed on desks, small computers have been developed in 1970 with the invention of the micro processor, it came as a small processor to make cheap and small computer in size, these computers Also called personal computer, microcomputer comes with desktop computers, laptops, palmtop, tablet PCs and workstations.

Mini Computer

The Mini Computer is larger than the Micro Computer in terms of size and power, the first mini – computer was prepared in 1965, its size was equivalent to a refrigerator, where on one side is the (micro computer ) In a CPU There are more than one C.P.U. in mini computers. There are more than one person can work together on Mini Computer, they often use small or medium sized companies.

Mainframe Computer

Mainframe computers are very large in size, large companies use the mainframe computer as a central computer, can be interconnected with multiple computers in one network, in which both users use together Can work, the mainframe computer uses a node.js software platform.

Super Computer

Super Computer All other categories are extremely large, with more storage capacity and the highest speed compared to the Micro Computer, Mini Computer and Mainframe Computer Equal to ordinary room, super computers are used in research work in large scientific and research laboratories, in 1998 a super computer and manufactured by C-Deck in India Was named “Ultimate -10000”, calculated Cshamta 1 trillion calculations per second today in the name Kshetr super computers in the world, India.

Computer advantages and disadvantages

Computer is a small but powerful machine, for many people it is not less than magic, which can do many things without tiring, it has many advantages but due to its losses Can not be undeclared.

Benefits and Importance of Computer

  • Today everywhere the computer is being used on a large scale, the biggest reason for this is that it works very fast against humans, it can do very big calculation in few seconds.
  • Everything is available on the computer today, you can store a lot of data in the computer and use it anytime, and if you have internet access, you can also secure your data on the Internet using cloud storage.
  • You can stay connected with your friends in any way, through features such as video calls, email, social networking, and more.
  • You can get any information on the internet.
  • Facilities like banking are not the answer to the computer technology, you can transfer money from anyone sitting or sitting from your mobile phone or computer.
  • Today, mobile recharges, electricity bills, online shopping, till the airplane is being played by the computer, without any mistake.
  • In the field of education and medicine, the computer has changed the world. You can get education from the best teachers / institutions sitting at home and talk about medicine, you can consult the world’s finest doctors on the internet and now you can go to medical There is no need to go to the store. You can order the medicines even if you sit at home, whether or not they get in your name or not.

Disadvantages of Computer

  • Where another computer is making people smart, the other and the more useful it is making the sick.
  • More use of computer and mobile is proving harmful to health Most of the damage is done by looking at the mobile and computer screens continuously.
  • People have stopped meeting, more people are more likely to chat with social networking sites such as Facebook and WhatsApp, even if they go to someone’s home, even if 4 people living in a house can also go from their mobile phones, Only sticky.
  • Many laborers work in large companies and fatties, computers and robots are working, which also leads to unemployment.
  • Due to the careful use of internet banking, there is a danger of stealing your personal data, causing many users to suffer financial losses.
  • Similarly, on the social networking site also happens even when not working carefully.
  • Thugs through the internet have grown on a big scale.


If we use this technique correctly, then our future can change a lot, but its wrong use can spoil our present, you know that we are not in computer control, it is in our control, Use it safely.

The digital computer that you have in the world today, all the credit for making this world goes to a great Computer Scientist. Whose name is Charles Babbage Who was Professor of Mathematics. This world started in the 19th century, though you may know that Charles Babbage is also called Father of Computer.

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